2012 Reprint of 1939 Edition. Exact facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. This pamphlet is a manifesto, at once concise, cogent and eloquent, of individualistic liberalism. It is a fundamental challenge to the doctrine of liberal socialism. The kernel of his argument is that collectivist economic planning involves the planning organ of society in making final and authoritative decisions concerning the relative importance of different human needs: it therefore presupposes a very large measure of agreement on the part of the whole people in the matter of social values.